Identify and describe in detail one engineering failure that occurred prior to the year 1900 for Small and widespread (eg Sydney water cryptosporidium and giardia contamination 1998; bunk beds childhood falls 2005; Backyard trampoline non-compliance 2003-2013).
Place yourself in the seat of an engineer who was causally involved in each failure and answer the following questions for each failure:
• Small – Minor Injuries and property damage, may not result in loss of life.
•Widespread – although the causing incident was localized it has effects distributed over a large geographical area.
Whatever failure you choose, it must be an engineering failure for which you can readily obtain information. You are required to provide:
1- General Introduction.
2- A brief background to the failure and why you believe your example qualifies as an engineering failure (as distinct from a non-engineering failure).
3 – Define the Inherent risk.
4- Conduct a risk assessment to quantitatively verify the magnitude of the risk exposure in terms of deaths / injuries / damages / costs using a recognized method such as: Causal Diagram and FMEA.
Describe in detail the causal chain (ie show causality from the root cause (s) to the failure event) and FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis) and provide a causal diagram and FMEA (as an Appendix).
5 – Would the pre-failure mitigation have passed the HSE Tolerability of Risk (ToR) test (ie you need to demonstrate the consequences of the failure in terms of deaths / injuries / damages / costs to confirm whether they were / were not 10x or greater than the sacrifice / investment entailed with the implementation of any pre-accident countermeasures).
6- Lessons were learned from this failure.
7- Conclusion and recommendations.
8- REFERENCES: TWO OF THE REFERENCES SHOULD BE FROM JOURNAL ARTICLE.