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India’s Current National Security

One of the pillars of a national existence is the ability to defend itself from all forms of threats, whether internal or external. Countries across the world have continued to experience security challenges and therefore forced to come up with urgent security measures (Carter, 2016).  The main security threat in the 21st century across the world is terrorism, which has led to massive killing of people and destruction of properties (Medcalf, 2013). The internal security management of a country assumes enormous importance when issues of security are undertaken and addressed. This paper will address India’s current security problems and provide recommendations on how to enhance security policy.

India has remained focused on its security and the wellbeing of its citizens. The security apparatus are well-coordinated and structured in a manner that the National Security Structure and the National Security Advisor (NSA) are fundamental upon which the NSC system operates (Jaswant, 2016). The role of the NSA has, over time, been expanded to address security issues in the country. As India’s economic and military profile grows on the broader Indo-Pacific, it continues to face a range of intrastate and regional security challenges. These challenges are orchestrated by several issues like religion, technology, boundary disputes, politics and many others

                                                       Terrorism

Terrorism continues to be a security challenge, with the Pulwama terror attack being the biggest in recent years. An analysis by the government indicated that terrorist attacks were on the rise by 176 percent in Jammu and Kashmir between 2014 and 2018. India has witnessed scores of terror attacks and has learned from the shortcomings and mistakes. The national security agencies have done whatever is needed to prevent more such attacks.

Nevertheless, there still is no guarantee and no one is aware of what tactics the terrorists might come up with again.  From Jayaramu (2013) perspective, analysis of an open international database indicates that the maximum of several terrorist incidents that occurred in the year 2011 was 566 but the death toll was much lesser than the year 1992. The year 1992 witnessed round about 231 incidents but the death toll was highest of all time. It was around 1109 which is less than half of the death toll that occurred in the year 2011. This indicates significant strides in combating terrorism and related cases.

Terrorism has all along been propagated to cause division and hatred among the Hindu and Muslim in India. Countries like Pakistan continue to be the biggest beneficiaries of the religious differences in India, therefore, supplying arms that are of high economic value (Beri, 2016). India faces a very challenging strategic environment, with both neighbors possessing significant capabilities and militaries that are themselves modernizing rapidly.

China and Pakistan are quickly modernizing their militaries, and this keeps India worried and resolving to upgrade its security structures. Kasmir is one of the contested areas that is claimed by both Pakistan and India; the area possesses as a security threat with rebellion receiving material and financial support from Pakistan. Jihadists have increasingly taken to high profile suicide attacks against the Indian Security forces (Sachdeva, 2016). The Islamic States continue to make some landfalls in India. The attack that was made on Easter Sunday in Sri Lanka is a reason to have India review its security structure and operations. India continues to be among the susceptible states not only as a goal but as a center for sweeping leadership. 

 

 

Military Expenditure

It is essential to have the grasp and the nature of the transformation of India’s military in the assessment of the types of conflicts it faces (Cavelty, et.al2016). The upgrading of the Indian defense forces is a multifaceted course casing issues affecting the composure between workforce and arms as well as that concerning the acquirement of arms from indigenous sources and the significance of arms (Perlo-Freeman, et.al2013)  . India’s struggles to facelift and reorganize its soldierly in reply to security tests are branded by a mission to meet the needs of the three services without conceding clearness and honesty in the procurement of weapons.

With around 1, 2 million active personnel, India’s military is one of the most massive land forces in the world. The Indian army mostly consists of armored, infantry and armored infantry units. Most heavy equipment is from Russian or Soviet origin but has been upgraded or modified by India’s domestic defense industry. India roughly spends $50 Billion per year on defense, making it the fourth-largest spender in the world (Tian et al., 2017). For the first time after the Indian independence army has retaliated against cross border terrorism with surgical strikes

India’s military has always been a little bit in the shadow of the region’s giant, China. It has been often overlooked that India’s military is a very well structured and equipped military force (Ajay Sahni, 2018). What makes it unique is the enormous prestige the military has in society and the high motivation and formidable level of education of its soldiers. Some of its ground forces are equal to those of the best armies in the world. At the moment, India’s military is in a transition phase to fully modernize its forces for the future and annual defense spending is rising between 7 and 10%. India has a vast intelligence network both at home and across the border which helps it to monitor movements of terrorist camps and groups.(Das,et.al 2015) Not only people but India’s primary intelligence agency, the RAW, monitor’s movement of arms and ammunition and drugs, as these are potential financing weapons of terrorist organizations. Once they have the necessary information, they move swiftly and stealthily, and either take out the enemy without the world knowing about it or like they did in Myanmar, using all-out action.

 

India had changed its international strategy considerably, from those days of neutrality and non-alignment when it started the Non-Aligned Movement at the Bandung Conference in 1955, to the current bilateral and multilateral agreements being made with all the strategically important countries. The Prime Minister also is exhibiting diminished interest in the outdated NAM principles, as he did not attend the summit this year.  Security alignments can also be noted with countries like the USA, with the signing of the LEMOA agreement and increasing procurement of arms from the USA instead of Russia. The USA also recently announced India as one of its Major Defense Partners for upgrading the bilateral relationship to the next level. India has also started signing relevant Agreements with conflicting countries like Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran in these security matters. The careful balancing of the Indian foreign policy juggling between these three triangularly ideologically different countries is a modern-day wonder indeed.

 

Cyber Attacks

Cyber-attack is another security challenge facing India, leading to it being among the most affected countries in the world. Cyber criminals have objectives, but they can expertise their ways to cause attack trajectories in order to accomplish the upshots they want. They may commit fraud, identity theft, steal money, and commit robbery against corporations, banks, nations, regions and even individuals (Goutam, 2015).They may try to blackmail them, too.

Cyber-criminals have modified progressive cyber-attack methods for their embattled end-users. Many corporate areas and geographical localities have faced recent cyber-attack in India, leading to downfall of financial institutions through the leakage of most sensitive information. As technology continues to advance promptly, India has failed to keep adjusting to these trends. Most of the time these well-organized attacks are made, leading to destabilization of the economy. It is worth noting that cyber-attacks pose far-reaching dangers to power grids.

Cosmos Bank Cyber-Attack in Pune 

The well-orchestrated cyber-attack in 2018 was organized on Cosmos Bank in Pune. This bold attack trembled the entire banking division of India when cyber hackers tapped off Rs.94.42 crore from Cosmos Cooperative Bank Ltd. in Pune (FIGHT, 2015). Hackers lacerated the bank’s ATM servers and got away with Customer’ details of many visas and rupee debit cardholders. There have been other cyber-attacks like the Canara bank attack and the SIM Swap scam done by the two Mumbai hackers.

                                    Socio-economic Conflicts

Over the years, India has been having a fast growth of the economy, which is another risk. The wealth gaps continue to deepen as the compact majority continues to languish in poverty and are excluded from economic flourishing. An area like the Eastern and northeastern peace and stability continues to worsen from 2010 being the goriest year in history owing to the Naxalite uprising (Singh, et.al 2017). Naxalite since then has been having a set of operations that have gone to more than 29 states. They have continued to operationalize in the poor and rural areas and habitually engaging in vicious activities against the government to extract money.

                                     The 5G Debate

India is about to steer the 5G debate that will have some economic repercussions and affect its national security.  Sooner or later, India will have to make choices on the 5G debate. 5G has the potential to transform India’s data economy, but also its defense arrangements. With the continued world unreliability, India will not have the opportunity to have its usual Jugaad (Gupta et al. 2015). The only option is India to either choose to follow China or go with the US. The 5G decision will, therefore, interfere with India’s Intelligence.
 The US-China trade wars cannot be taken lightly by India. China has, on different occasions, challenged India in the Indian Ocean via Pakistan route, and through which an economic perfect keeps India on the losing side in trade.

                                Political Instability

India has experienced political instability more so in times of elections or when there is a change of a regime. All political changes bring about new decisions, rules, and regulations that, most of the time, are faced with hostility. The 1990-1993 political instability was well experienced in India that saw the oust of three prime ministers. During the electioneering periods, aspiring candidates of the legislative assembly propagate violence and thrive on violence and propaganda that lead to political instability (Abdella et al. 2018). Kasmir area has been in the spotlight where militancy has been on the rise as ardent members of the public continue to support militants killed by security officers. In the Northeast, elections have been won on the fundamental promises of displaced persons who have been living in India for decades.

                                                                  Border issues

India has hosted the Heart of Asia Conference of the Istanbul Process many times to gather international support for the Afghans. Overall, there are no border skirmishes with Afghanistan as the people of this country respect India. The same applies to the relationship with Bhutan as well, where mutual respect and understanding is the prevalent predominant norm, as propounded by the I.K. Gujral’s Doctrine of India helping its friendly neighboring countries unilaterally, without expecting much in return. For every other strained border, including that of Sri Lanka, there are the Armed Forces which take care of the safety and security of the country

The issue with Bangladesh is more complicated, mainly due to the infiltration of unregulated refugees and migrants into the north-eastern states, which is changing the racial dynamics of these states, especially Assam.

A large migrant Bangladeshi and Pakistan population is creating a Law and order issue in the Assamese region mainly due to the xenophobia amongst the local populace and the illegal settlement and citizenship registration of these Bangladeshi immigrants (Ferdoush, et.al 2018). The Myanmar border is stained with the stronghold of various drug cartels, due to the presence of the famous Golden Triangle, the world’s drug manufacturing horde. This is combined with the internal insurgency issues of the North-Eastern states, the violent Naga ethnic problem, and an absence of economic development due to the inaccessibility of the seven sister states with mainland India.

 According to Sharma (2010), if things seemed complicated in the international scenario, they are no less in the internal scenario as well. The State Police, which takes care of the Law and order situation, reduction of crime rate, management of prisons, and other policing, is facing a tough situation indeed. With the rising drug-related problems, rapes, murders, and thefts, the local citizenry is facing many issues in their day-to-day problems that need to be solved by their locally available policemen (Tripathi, 2015). A Committee was set up under Justice Malimath to suggest recommendations in revamping the Criminal Justice system. It reiterated the need for D. K. Basu Guidelines that are to be followed by the policemen to adhere to the Procedure of Arrest.

The revamping of the existing police machinery to suit the needs of the current times is a must. With an enhanced citizen’s police interactional interface, what needs is an up-gradation in the maintenance of police records. This can be achieved through digitization of court records, official police documents and connecting the internal systems of all the police stations and courts with each other (Bell, et.al 2015). An online interface and an ability to lodge FIRs online should also be encouraged. Utilizing the internet for establishing e-Governance will help the common man in approaching the police easier. The increase in the usage of the internet through smartphones and laptops by today’s India is a testimony for this fact indeed.

                                                            Recommendations    

Along with conventional armies and conventional security strategies, India needs to learn to use unconventional means to win over the unconventional threats that she faces in contemporary times in order to survive. The country is a curious case where it has been successful in attracting all sorts of complications including terrorism, insurgency, Maoism, underworld gang wars, smuggling, theft, rapes, crime, and border infiltration. It has also created a viable organizational capacity to control each one of these intimidating activities.

Based on these recommendations, the Indian Army has recently announced the formation and formal establishment of the Army Design Bureau. It is aimed to act as an interface of the Indian Army that will provide high-tech defense products with the help of the collaboration between academics, various research organizations, and the industry. This original method will provide a better understanding of the Army’s requirements and would indigenize procurements and reduce the dependence on the massive imports. This will add an impetus to the ‘Make in India’ initiative of the Central Government.

Even the Navy is getting an upgrade with the approval of “Project 75”, where a series of advanced Scorpene submarines are being built, along with the induction of new naval attack ships INS Khanderi, INS Kalvari and others to the Indian Navy. In the same way, French Rafale fighter jets are being procured and are being inducted to the Indian Air Force. These will be on the lines of the Russian Sukhoi, which has helped the Air Force in innumerable ways.

This enhanced collaboration can already be seen in the annual inter-service military exercise called the Theatre Readiness Operational Exercise (TROPEX) involving the Army, the Navy, the Air Force and the Coast Guard which is designed to test the interoperability and combat readiness of these Forces. Not just the TROPEX, but inter-national and inter-country military exercises are being organized annually to ensure interoperability at a global scale, for example, the annual Malabar Trilateral Exercise between the naval forces of India, Japan and the United States. Even India and China have their own annual joint military exercise called Hand-in-Hand. This ensures increased cooperation and mutual understanding of various countries, which may subtly increase friendship and strengthen the relationship.

                                                           

 

Conclusion

For over seven decades since Independence, the young country has gained experience in tackling each threat with its focused strategy, with its viable plan and with its appropriate ideation. Learning from the historical tale of the aurochs, in the current cluttered international context, and the more chaotic internal context, India has learnt to take good care of herself. Much unlike the fabled extinct aurochs, to ensure her own survival, India has continuously strived to have a viable National Security Strategy, right from those days of the Cold War, to these times of the Code War. Considering a long-term approach, the report suggests that the Indian government needs to move ahead with its Integrated Theater Commands plan.

 The days of using only the Army are now over. India now needs to take a firm stand against terrorism and use all resources at its disposal. This can be achieved with the help of the many Ordnance Factories established in the country under the overall technical supervision of the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO). Unless the nation brings about massive reforms, it may not be able to play a defining combative role against terrorism. A strong will and proper military strategies are the needs of the hour.

 

 

 

 

                                                  

                                      

 

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Company Management Research Paper

Class Paper:Each student will produce one (1) research paper for this session.  Specific topics and further instruction will be made available later.  The references must be published items (books, articles, etc.), not mere websites.  Do not include websites to your sources in the bibliography.  The only exception is the company websites, which most assuredly will be included.  The final paper will be delivered on or before the due date electronically in the Canvas drop box.  The course paper will cover an example of managerial success and an example of managerial failure.  Obviously, this requires two separate company examples.  What defines managerial success/failure will have to be discussed before example companies can be assessed.  Make sure you elaborate on what most contributed to the success and failures.  Be sure to consider the management and implementation issues as they relate to strategy, structure and controls.  Students that find distinctive examples can expect a higher grade.  The paper length is two pages, single spaced… not including references.  The two page requirement does not include 

citations.  

 
 
 

Explain each of the key components.

Health Care Information Systems are important in dispensing information throughout the organization. You will develop a research paper on a health care technology that has become essential to sharing information via electronic communication mediums (e.g., EMR, Telehealth, HMR, and so on).

  • Explain each of the key components.
  • Explain each of the contributing factors.
  • Provide examples of ways to measure each part.

Present your findings as a 3-4 page, abstract, and reference page

Challenges

Assignment Details 300 words and reference

  • Reflecting on the focus and content of this course, what is an important challenge facing management of health care organizations today, and how would you go about addressing it? Explain.

Write a paper that defines and describes what mentoring is and why it is so important to health care organizations.

 3-4 pages, abstract and reference page

  • Write a paper that defines and describes what mentoring is and why it is so important to health care organizations.
  • Analyze the benefits and drawbacks of informal and formal mentoring programs and relationships.
  • Finally, discuss how a mentoring relationship has, or will, support your career development.

War Vs Peace Essay

Follow the process previously detailed in this section to write a well-organized, well-researched, solidly edited, persuasive essay. Make sure to include your support in the form of facts, statistics or quotes. Properly frame the support and cite your sources. Consider your word choice and work to ensure a well-structured introduction and conclusion. Use what you’ve learned about adding phrases to improve your sentence variety.

This essay will be graded using the 6+1 writing traits rubric that can be found in the introduction to the course. There will be 20 points available per trait. The last 20 points will be for the works cited page. Look up the proper MLA formatting for works cited.

Given that this unit is about war and peace, you probably saw this coming. You will write your persuasive essay on the following question:

“Should the United States have gone to war in Iraq?”

You can argue the affirmative or the negative. The speeches you have listened to in this unit can be used as sources. Good luck! 

When you are satisfied with your paper, please submit this assignment.  Please be sure to document your sources.

Medicare And Medicaid

Introduction:

Commercial insurance ranges from individual health coverage to automobile liability coverage. All commercial policies have similarities and differences, and there are critical areas to address in billing for each type.

Tasks:

  • Describe at least three commercial insurance programs.
  • Provide the major features of each program.
  • Discuss how these programs differ from each other.
  • Briefly describe how to bill for each program.

Submission Details:

To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

Your initial posting should be addressed in 150–300 words. Submit your document to this Discussion Area by the due date assigned.

 

Medicare And Medicaid

Initial Post Guidelines

Assume you are the HR director for the organization described in this unit’s vignette.

  • Should you work with the analyst in the sales office to improve the sales compensation program or simply take all of the work under the HR office’s control to improve the program, and why?
  • Would you recommend consolidating all the compensation functions under one operational area of the organization? Why or why not?
  • What alternative approaches might you consider to address your organization’s sales force compensation challenge? 

Employment Law Case Studies

Fully answer the questions associated with each case below

 

Secnario: You are a paralegal with the Weyland-Yutani Corporation. Your boss attorney, Sharon Ripley, has asked you do answer some questions about some HR legal issues that have arisen. 

Case 1

The first case involves Joe Stromboli.  Joe is a delivery driver for Weyland, and after an accident, Joe became 100% deaf in both ears. The doctors were unable to restore any of Joe’s hearing. Joe’s manager, Stephanie, believes that communication with employees and the recipients of the deliveries is an essential function of the job. Additionally, Joe needs to be able to participate in the team meetings. Joe’s manager was unsure whether to proceed, so she referred the case to the Weyland-Wutani medical staff. The medical employee took one look at Joe and said no accommodation is possible. When asked why, the doctor said “Joe’s deaf.” Joe was terminated, and he has now filed a suit for failure to reasonably accommodate.  

The job description for a Weyland-Yutani delivery driver states that the employee must be able to maintain a Commercial driver’s license. Additionally, delivery drivers are expected to take orders from various employees. This is ordinarily done via hand radio. However, Joe has a cell phone capable of receiving text messages and emails that could allow him to take orders. Furthermore, Joe has offered to carry a pen and paper around so that communication could also be done this way. Joe’s deafness had no effect on maintaining his CDL, and the firm expects it would make these accommodations fairly cheaply. 

  1. Can Joe establish a claim for failure to reasonably accommodate disability? Be sure to list the elements of the claim and to show how you reached your conclusion.
  2. What mistakes—if any—were made? How can these be corrected in the future? 

Case 2

The second case involves Johnson. Johnson is a floor supervisor in the plant. 55% of the time he is engaged with ordinary production. However, 45% of the time he is engaged with supervising his zone, preparing schedules, and dealing with personnel disputes. If there is a problem, he is responsible for mobilizing his zone to resolve equitable. He also spends times meeting with his superiors in order to provide reports on efficiency of employees and on any other problems that have arisen. For this, he receives 10% more money than his subordinates. He had earlier been classified as an FSLA exempt employee. Now, he is challenging that designation. Although Weyland has a strict no-overtime policy, Johnson has been showing up to work early to drink a cup of coffee, smoke a cigarette, make sure schedules are prepared, doors are unlocked, and preparing workstations for the day ahead. He typically arrives an hour early to perform these tasks. Weyland knew that Johnson was coming in early, and working 45 hours a week. 

  1. Is Johnson an exempt employee?  Be sure to list and discuss the applicable legal standards as well as some of the factors the court will consider.
  2. Was Johnson’s pre-shift work preliminary?
  3. Was Johnson’s work de minimis?
  4. Does Weyland’s policy against overtime mean they don’t have to pay?

Case 3

Weyland wishes to modify their pension plan. The current plan allows employees to either receive $500 a month or $100,000 upfront upon retirement. Both plans also offer a annual ticket to the company retreat cruise. Seeking to incentives people to accept $500 a month, Weyland wishes to tie the ticket to employees receiving $500 a month only to apply retroactively to $100,000 lump sum plan. 

  1. Does this violate ERISA?  Why or why not?

Case 4

Weyland became aware that a union organizing campaign was underway in one of its plants. A union supporter was called in to a meeting with plant managers. At the end of the meeting, when the employee asked what he was supposed to do if others wanted to talk with him about unionizing, he was told “[Y]ou’re to just work and not talk about the Union.” After union supporters posted material on company bulletin boards, the flyers were repeatedly taken down. The company then issued a policy requiring all employees to obtain approval before placing any material on the boards. Subsequently, the company’s practice was to refuse to post material of any kind from employees.

A few months later, several off-duty employees attempted to distribute prounion flyers in the company parking lot but were stopped by company officials. They were warned that they were in violation of company policy. Around the same time, employees passed out union buttons in the plant and left some of them near a time clock for other employees to pick up.

When company officials learned of this activity, they quickly called a meeting and warned one union advocate that “I don’t want to catch you passing [buttons] out, Okay, I don’t want to see them laying around. You can pass them out when you’re outside, on your own time, but when you’re here working, you, you, need to be working.” The officials said that this action was taken to keep the plant free of clutter and trash.

  1. Has Weyland engaged in unfair labor practices in its response to the union organizing activity?

Case 5

At the end of her shift, a 19 year old salesperson at Weyland was questioned by two store security officers.  She was questioned in a small room for three hours.  One of the security officers sat behind her on the right side where she could not see him (she was blind in the right eye).  She was asked to sign a document stating that she was voluntarily waiving her “rights,” including the right to remain silent.  When she asked for further explanation of the document before she signed it, she was told that it “doesn’t mean anything” unless you’ve “done something wrong.” A security officer threatened to call the police and have her jailed unless she signed a confession.  She was told that the interrogation could last all night and that if she signed a confession she could probably keep her job. Under these circumstances she signed.  She was fired two days later. The employee claims that she is agitated and finding it increasingly difficult to sleep.

  1. Does the sales person have a claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress?

Case 6

A female crane operator was told it was Weyland policy that crane operators urinate over the side of their cranes rather than stop work to take bathroom breaks. Management justified the policy by saying that there was a shortage of staff and that it was necessary for the cranes to operate continuously in that area of the plant. Shifts for crane operators were typically twelve hours. There was evidence that the same policy was applied to male crane operators and that they routinely urinated over the side or back of their cranes in lieu of bathroom breaks.

  1. Does the female crane operator have a valid sex discrimination claim under disparate impact? What about disparate treatment? 

NUR-635-D1R2

Minimum of 250 words with two or more peer review reference

Depending on the board of nursing in your state, there may be additional requirements to become a prescriber after you complete your APRN program. 

Describe the necessary steps required, for the state Florida how is it different than California, in order to become a prescriber? After you have completed these steps, you decide to celebrate on a family vacation in a different state. Your sister asks you to refill her levothyroxine because she forgot to pack her medication. What are the legal and ethical implications as a new prescriber to consider in this situation?

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