Medical decision making can be an extremely challenging experience for patients and their loved ones. Balancing various potential outcomes with levels of risk can be daunting for someone who is also dealing with the emotional stresses of illness. Gaining the patient's "true" informed consent is a critical step for health care professionals to ensure that the best decisions can be made.
To prepare for this Discussion, review this week's Learning Resources, paying particular attention to the Emanuel article, "What Makes Clinical Research Ethical?"
Also, review the Macklin article from Week 1, "Applying the Four Priniciples" before preparing and posting your discussion response.
Post an explanation of how informed consent for medical research (clinical trials) differs from the patient's consent to treat used in health care practice (e.g., medical treatment or surgery). Explain why you think this difference exists? Provide at least one clear example of how informed consent could be used in medical research and one example of how it is used in health care practice. Then provide an example of each of the four ethical principals in action in research.
References to files below:
– Nelson-Marten, P., & Rich, B. (1999). A historical perspective of informed consent in clinical practice and research. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 15(2), 81-88.
– McManus, J., Metha, S. G., McClinton, A. R., De Lorenzo, R. A., & Baskin, T. W. (2005). Informed consent and ethical issues in military medical research. Academic Emergency Medicine, 12(11), 1120-6. (PDF)
– Emanuel, E. J., Wendler, D., & Grady, C. (2000). What makes clinical research ethical? American Medical Association, 283, 2701-2711.